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ELECTRIC STINGRAY : ORGANIC ELECTRIC GENERATOR


What is an Electric Ray? 
The electric ray is known to be the most electro-sensitive of all animals. Their eyes are situated on the top of their head, resulting in poor vision that must be compensated for with the use of other senses, including the detection of electricity. Many species of rays and skates outside the family of the electric ray have electric organs located in the tail; however, the electric ray possesses two large electric organs on each side of its head, where current passes from the lower to the upper surface of the body. The organs are governed by four central nerves from each side of the electric lobe, or specialized brain lobe, which is of a different color from the rest of the brain. The main nerves branch repeatedly, then attach to the lower side of each plate in the batteries, which are composed of hexagonal columns, in honeycomb formation: each column consists of 140 to half a million gelatinous plates. In marine fish, these batteries are connected as a parallel circuit where freshwater batteries are found in series, transmitting discharges of higher voltage, as fresh water cannot conduct electricity as well as salt water. It is with such a battery that an average electric ray may electrocute larger prey with a current of up to 30 amperes and a voltage of 50 to 200 volts, a similar effect to dropping a mains-powered hair dryer into a bathtub..continue..



Electric Stingrays 
Probably the most common animal with electric capabilities is the stingray. There are fourteen known species of stingray that range in habitat from the Pacific coasts of California to British Columbia all the way to various Atlantic locations. Other fish belonging to the order include the coffin rays, sleeper rays, and numbfishes, all with electric capabilities. The order totals over sixty creatures.Classification: Stingrays are primarily divided into two categories, based on numerous qualities including their size and type of prey.  The superfamily, Torpedinoidea, specialize in hunting and killing very large prey by stunning the animals and swallowing them whole. Coffin rays and electric rays belong to this superfamily. The second superfamily, Narcinoidea, consists mainly rays that feed on small prey or bottom feed. Animals in this superfamily include numbfishes and sleeper rays. The only universal commonality between the superfamilies is the use of electricity as a means of defense...continue..


Electric Stingrays Image Gallery 
Anyone who dives will probably already know that rays are related to sharks – although they look nothing like them – and that rays drop loosely into two groups, those that sting in some way (electric and sting rays) and those that don't, such as mobula and manta rays. Rays are part of the scientific Batoidea superorder of cartilaginous fish, which contains more than 500 species in thirteen families...continue..


Electric Stingrays Quick Facts 
1. Electric rays belong to the superorder Batoidea, which includes stingrays, skates, guitarfishes, and sawfishes. Like their relatives the sharks, batoids have skeletons made of tough connective tissue called cartilage.
2. Atlantic torpedo rays (Torpedo nobiliana), for example, live along the coastlines of Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, and South Africa. But they also have been found in the open ocean at depths of approximately 450 m (1,475 ft.). Blind electric rays (Typhlonarke aysoni) have been discovered in waters as deep as 900 m (2,950 ft.).
3. The mouth of the Australian coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygium) is enormous, allowing it to gulp prey half the size of its body...continue..

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