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BATTERY: ELECTRICAL PORTABLE SOURCE


Battery as an Electrical Source 
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth..continue..



There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers..continue..


Imagine a world where everything that used electricity had to be plugged in. Flashlights, hearing aids, cell phones and other portable devices would be tethered to electrical outlets, rendering them awkward and cumbersome. Cars couldn't be started with the simple turn of a key; a strenuous cranking would be required to get the pistons moving. Wires would be strung everywhere, creating a safety hazard and an unsightly mess. Thankfully, batteries provide us with a mobile source of power that makes many modern conveniences possible..continue..


A battery, which is actually an electric cell, is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. In a one cell battery, you would find a negative electrode; an electrolyte, which conducts ions; a separator, also an ion conductor; and a positive electrode.
Timeline of Battery History
1748 - Benjamin Franklin first coined the term "battery" to describe an array of charged glass plates..continue..


A battery is a package of one or more galvanic cells used for the production and storage of electric energy by chemical means. A galvanic cell consists of at least two half cells, a reduction cell and an oxidation cell. Chemical reactions in the two half cells provide the energy for the galvanic cell operations.Each half cell consists of an electrode and an electrolyte solution. Usually the solution contains ions derived from the electrode by oxidation or reduction reaction.We will make this introduction using a typical setup as depicted here. The picture shows a copper zinc galvanic cell (battery).A galvanic cell is also called a voltaic cell. The spontaneous reactions in it provide the electric energy or current.

Two half cells can be put together to form an electrolytic cell, which is used for electrolysis. In this case, electric energy is used to force nonsponaneous chemical reactions..continue..


Accumulator -A rechargeable battery or cell (see also Secondary battery).

Ampere or Amp - An Ampere or an Amp is a unit of measurement for an electrical current. One amp is the amount of current produced by an electromotive force of one volt acting through the resistance of one ohm. Named for the French physicist Andre Marie Ampere. The abbreviation for Amp is A but its mathematical symbol is "I". Small currents are measured in milli-Amps or thousandths of an Amp.

Amp Hour or Ampere-Hour - A unit of measurement of a battery's electrical storage capacity. Current multiplied by time in hours equals ampere-hours. One amp hour is equal to a current of one ampere flowing for one hour. Also, 1 amp hour is equal to 1,000 mAh

Ampere-Hour Capacity - The number of ampere-hours which can be delivered by a battery on a single discharge..continue..

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